Appendix E1 - GLOSSARY

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Table of Contents

Effective Date:

This Chapter is effective April 1, 2008. It replaces Chapter E1 as published April 1, 2004 in the General Instructions for Surveys of Canada Lands, e-Edition.

This glossary defines surveying and related terms used in Parts B, C, D and E of these General Instructions. It is intended to clarify how these terms are used with respect to Canada Lands. It is not intended to standardize terminology for national usage.

absolute accuracy
The absolute horizontal accuracy of the coordinates for a point with respect to the NAD83CSRS or other approved reference system at the 95% confidence level, which is dependent on the absolute accuracy of the known point(s) used to derive the coordinates of the local survey and the relative accuracy of the connection(s) to the known point(s).
alienation
In real property law, usually means the transfer or conveyance of property to another. The transfer or conveyance of property is not required to alienate Canada Lands. Canada Lands may also be alienated when the trust responsibilities of the federal government have been removed. See also disposition.
approval (plan)
A declaration indicating that a plan is good, satisfactory or acceptable for a specific purpose. Approvals are usually in accordance with legislation, standards, and / or instructions. See also confirmation (plan).
artificial boundary
See boundary, artificial.
azimuth
The direction of a line through a point with respect to the meridian through the point expressed as the clockwise angle from north. Except where the line is along a meridian or the equator, the azimuth of a straight line changes as the point moves along the line.
balanced bearing
See bearing, balanced.
bank
See ordinary high water mark; bank, right or left.
bank, right or left
The right bank or left bank of a river or stream is that bank which is on the right or left side of the bed when the observer is looking downstream.
basemapping
Mapping showing physical features on which thematic information may be shown. Basemapping may be in the form of photomaps and linemaps.
bearing
The direction of a line with respect to a reference meridian expressed as the clockwise angle from north or as a quadrant angle from north or south. A straight line has the same bearing at all its points.
bearing, balanced
The bearing of a course in a closed traverse which has been adjusted to eliminate the error of closure.
bearing, calculated
See calculated bearing.
bed
The bed of a body of water is the land covered so long by water as to wrest it from vegetation, or as to mark a distinct character upon the vegetation where it extends into the water or upon the soil itself.
boundary
The line of division between two parcels of land. It delimits the extent of parcels in separate ownership or subject to different rights.
boundary, artificial
A boundary defined by a straight line, a circular curve of known radius or, in rare cases, a spiral curve.
boundary, jurisdictional
A boundary dividing the area of authority between two governments or two levels of government. (e. g. the International Boundary, interprovincial and municipal boundaries, the boundaries of an Indian Reserve or National Park).
boundary, natural
A boundary defined by a natural feature such as the bank of a body of water or the middle thread of a stream.
calculated bearing
A bearing derived by computation rather than by direct measurement in the field.
calculated distance
A distance derived by computation rather than by direct measurement in the field.
Canada Lands
See Lands, Canada.
closed traverse
See traverse, closed.
Commissioner
The Commissioner of the Northwest Territories in the case of land situated in the Northwest Territories, the Commissioner of Nunavut in the case of land situated in Nunavut or the Commissioner of Yukon in the case of land situated in Yukon.
compiled plan
See plan, compiled.
confirmation (plan)
A declaration indicating that a plan is good, satisfactory or acceptable for a specific purpose. The term is used exclusively in these General Instructions for a confirmation by the Surveyor General in accordance with Section 29 or Part III of the Canada Lands Surveys Act. A plan, once confirmed under section 29, is deemed to have official status and governs all boundaries of the lands affected. Plans confirmed under Part III have similar status on filing of the plan in the appropriate land titles office.
control survey marker
See marker, control survey.
Coordinated Control Monument
See marker, control survey.
creation
With respect to a particular type of land, creation means the bringing of land under a particular jurisdiction or system.
disposition
With respect to property, means the transfer or alienation of rights and interests in property by any method, such as assignment, gift and sale. See also alienation.
disturbed monument
See monument, disturbed.
Federal Lands
See Lands, Federal.
federal real property
Real property belonging to Her Majesty in right of Canada, including any real property of which Her Majesty in right of Canada has the power to dispose.
field notes, official
Any field notes recorded in the Canada Lands Surveys Records.
field records
The records made in the field during the course of the survey.
geo-referencing
To determine the coordinates for a point with respect to the NAD83CSRS.
Indian Lands
See Lands, Indian.
instructions, survey
See survey instructions.
intervisible
When applied to two monuments, intervisible means that there is a clear line of sight between points 1.5 m above the ground at each monument.
jurisdictional boundary
See boundary, jurisdictional
land use area
A parcel of land depicting one specific use, such as agriculture, grazing or recreation. The parcel is created in accordance with the Interdepartmental Agreement with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development respecting land transactions on Reserves Lands, 2003, an excerpt of which is included in Part B of this e-Edition.
Land Use Area Plan
See Plan, Land Use Area.
Lands, Canada
Canada Lands are Canada Lands as defined in the Canada Lands Surveys Act. In general, these include National Parks, Indian Reserves, and all lands belonging to Her Majesty in right of Canada that are located in the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Canada's offshore.
Lands, Commissioners
Lands in Nunavut or the Northwest Territories that are vested in Her Majesty in right of Canada but the right to the beneficial use or to the proceeds of which is appropriated to the territorial government.
Lands, Federal
Federal Lands are territorial lands as defined in the Territorial Lands Act under the administration of a Minister of the federal government.
Lands, Indian
Indian Reserves, designated lands, surrendered lands, and any other lands held and administered by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development for the use and benefit of Indians.
lands, public
Any lands belonging to Her Majesty in right of Canada, including lands of which Her Majesty in right of Canada has power to dispose.
Lands, Territorial
When used in the context of the Territorial Lands Act, means lands situated in Nunavut or the Northwest Territories that are vested in Her Majesty in right of Canada or of which Her Majesty in right of Canada has power to dispose. When used in the context of special surveys under the Canada Lands Surveys Act, means any lands situated in Yukon, the Northwest Territories or Nunavut.
Lands, Yukon
Lands under the administration and control of the Commissioner of Yukon. Yukon Lands include territorial lands as defined in the Territorial Lands (Yukon) Act that were transferred by the Yukon Act, and Yukon lands as defined in the Lands Act (Yukon) that were previously known as Commissioner's Lands.
left bank
See bank, right or left.
legal survey
See survey, legal.
lost monument
See monument, lost.
marker, control survey
A control station forming part of a provincially or federally established control network. In a Coordinated Survey Area established in accordance with section 28 of the Canada Lands Surveys Act, control survey markers are called Coordinated Control Monuments.
marker post
See post, marker.
middle thread
The middle thread of a stream is the line midway between the banks.
monument
A monument as defined in section 2 of the Canada Lands Surveys Act. It is a general term for some device, object or thing marking a surveyed boundary of land.
monument, disturbed
A monument that has somehow been moved other than by an authorized surveyor in the exercise of a professional duty, and that can be proven beyond doubt to have been moved from its original position.
monument, lost
A "lost monument" is one whose position can be re-established only by measurements from some other monument or monuments to which it had previously been connected by survey.
monument, obliterated
A monument which can be restored with confidence from traces remaining on the ground of the original monument or from other physical evidence of the position of the original monument.
monument, witness
A monument, placed on a boundary of a parcel, which witnesses the position of a point that cannot be monumented. The point is defined by the distance and direction from the witness monument. A point can have only one witness monument defining its position.
natural boundary
See boundary, natural.
obliterated monument
See monument, obliterated.
official field notes
See field notes, official.
official plan
See plan, official.
official survey
See survey, official.
offset
The direction and distance of a single straight line from a point fixed by survey to another nearby point. Usually the offset is at right angle to the boundary or traverse line.
ordinary high water mark
The limit or edge of the bed of a body of water. In the case of non-tidal waters it may be called the "bank".
parcel
An area of land surveyed or otherwise defined. It includes, but is not limited to, lots, blocks, rights-of-way, land use areas, condominium units, sections, quarter sections, legal subdivisions and concessions.
plan, compiled
An official plan made under the direction of the Surveyor General from official field notes of one or more surveys.
plan, official
A plan of surveyed Canada Lands confirmed by the Surveyor General under Part II of the Canada Lands Surveys Act.
plan, Land Use Area
A Land Use Area plan is a graphical depiction of the extent of certain interests in Indian Lands. Land Use Area plans may be used as the basis of a "textual reference" as defined in the Interdepartmental Agreement with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development respecting land transactions on Reserves Lands, 2003.
plan, registration
A registration plan as defined in the Interdepartmental Agreement with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development respecting land transactions on Reserves Lands, 2003. A registration plan is a graphical description of the boundaries of land prepared from information which can include: existing land descriptions, field notes of survey, controlled aerial photographs or imagery, maps and information found in land transaction documents. The plans described are prepared under section 31 of the Canada Lands Surveys Act.
post, marker
A wooden, metal, plastic or similar type post placed near monuments or on boundaries. Used to protect and help locate monuments and boundaries.
post, reference
A post placed near a monument or control survey marker which may be used to re-establish the position of the monument or to confirm the stability of the monument or control survey marker.
public lands
See lands, public.
re-establish
To determine the position of a lost or disturbed monument.
reference post
See post, reference.
registration plan
See plan, registration.
restore
To refurbish an obliterated monument to its original or near original condition. It includes straightening the monument, re-digging the pits and mounds and replacing the original monument with a similar monument. The field notes must explain what was done to restore a monument.
resurvey
The survey of a previously surveyed boundary made for the purposes of correcting errors, re-establishing lost monuments, or placing additional monuments on the boundary.
retracement survey
See survey, retracement.
right bank
See bank, right or left.
right-of-way
A corridor, or similar area of land, over which people, vehicles or other things such as pipelines and powerlines have a right to cross. A right-of-way may be owned as a limited interest in land, such as an easement, or it may be owned in fee simple or administered and controlled for exclusive use, such as a road.
supersede
With respect to parcels, supersede refers to the situation where the parcels dealt with on a new plan replace all or part of the parcels dealt with on a previous plan.
survey
In its general sense, the determination of the position of points permanently or temporarily marked on the ground including the keeping of records of all measurements used in the determination. In this manual the term survey often means legal survey. The term legal survey has generally been used when there is a need to clarify that it does not include control, topographical or other types of surveys. See survey, legal.
survey instructions
Details on procedures for surveys of Canada Lands issued by the Surveyor General pursuant to sections 24 and 36 of the Canada Lands Surveys Act. They are issued in two forms: general survey instructions which are in the e-Edition, and specific survey instructions which are issued for particular projects.
survey, legal
A survey made to define boundaries of parcels of land suitable for the transfer of rights. It includes the preparation of field notes and plans and any examination, approval or confirmation that may be required. See also survey.
survey, official
A survey of Canada Lands for which a plan is confirmed under Section 29 of the Canada Lands Surveys Act.
survey, retracement
A survey of a previously surveyed boundary in order to determine the directions and distances between the monuments marking it.
surveyor
A Canada Lands Surveyor or a person holding a provincial land surveyor's commission and authorized by the Surveyor General to survey Canada Lands.
Surveyor General
Means the Surveyor General as defined in the Canada Lands Surveys Act.
Territorial Lands
See Lands, Territorial.
traverse, closed
A traverse which begins and ends at the same point (closed loop), or begins and ends at points whose relative positions have been determined by other surveys.
unit
With respect to a condominium, a parcel of land or space in a condominium for which title may be issued.
unit factor
A factor assigned to each unit on a condominium plan so that condominium fees, levies, etc., can be apportioned in an equitable manner. It is based on the area or volume of the unit with respect to the total area or volume of all units in the condominium.
vista
A lane cleared of overgrowth along a boundary to provide a clear view.
witness monument
See monument, witness.